The obesity based on waist circumference risk was divided into tertiles for both waist circumference and BMI. BMI is a simple and widely used clinical measure; however, BMI may not be a reliable indicator of health risk across all racial and ethnic groups (6,8,9). Although both body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) measure the level of overweight and obesity, WC may be more important because of its closer relationship to total body fat. However, BMI influences the relationship between WC and health. Since these cut-offs were defined based on European populations, it is important to use ethnic . The current thresholds were derived largely in populations of European origin. Discrimination of health risk by combined body mass index and waist circumference (vol 11, pg 135, 2003) Definitions The Public Health Interventions Advisory Committee (PHIAC) considered black and other minority ethnic groups, as well as Asian groups, when developing this guidance. The validation study indicated improved sensitivity and specificity with the BMI-specific WC thresholds compared with the single thresholds.

[21] . Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine whether the cross-sectional associations between anthropometric obesity measures, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and calculated 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk using the Framingham and general CVD risk score models, are the same for women of Australian, UK and Ireland, North . Despite a strong association between waist circumference and BMI at the population level, emerging evidence suggests that, across populations, waist circumference might be increasing beyond what is expected according to . Conventional BMI classifications are overweight (25.0 kg/m 2 BMI<30.0 kg/m 2) and obese (BMI 30.0 kg/m 2 ). Methods The study sample included 6,452 whites and African Americans (AA) aged 18-64 years. [10] Guideline Eligibility Criteria: - Adult patients with a BMI 30 kg/m2 - Adult patients with a BMI 227 kg/m with co-morbidities Design . Results: The optimal WC thresholds increased across BMI categories from 87 to 124 cm in men and from 79 to 115 cm in women. BMI cut-offs to define obesity are based on well established risks for cardiometabolic morbidity and premature mortality. The baseline characteristics of 27,026 oldest old in different BMI groups categorized by guidelines are presented in Supplementary Table 1. Waist circumference (WC) is a useful anthropometric tool to estimate cardiometabolic risk. Similar to previous research, the optimal waist circumference thresholds increased across BMI categories in both ethnic groups and were higher in men than in women. Ethnic-Specific BMI and Waist Circumference Thresholds By Peter T. Katzmarzyk, George A. Bray, Frank L. Greenway, William D. Johnson, Robert L. Newton, Eric Ravussin, Donna H. Ryan and Claude Bouchard BMI and waist circumference (WC) are used to identify individuals with elevated obesityrelated health risks. 1.Body mass index. J Clin 31 Crowther NJ, Norris SA. The aim of this study is to identify WC cutoff points in normotensive and hypertensive subjects which are diagnostic of abdominal obesity in a Middle Eastern population and the prevalence of abdominal obesity in a nationwide . 3.Body composition. 1 However, there is ongoing debate as to whether these criteria for obesity and . WHtR was calculated as waist circumference (cm)/height(cm). Waist circumference (WC) thresholds derived from western populations continue to be used in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) despite increasing evidence of ethnic variation in the association between . I.World Health . BMI (weight in kg divided by the square of height in m) is a relatively simple and low cost indirect measure for assessing obesity with reasonable height standardisation. Ethnic-specific waist circumference. This study determined optimal BMI and WC thresholds for the identification of cardiometabolic risk among white and AfricanAmerican (AA) adults. Background Being overweight or obese increases risk for cardiometabolic disorders. For BMI, the universal threshold of 25 kg/m 2 increased sensitivity to 65% but dropped specificity to 60%. . Waist circumference, BMI and health outcomes continuous analysis Despite the observation that the association between waist circumference and adverse health risk varies across BMI categories 11current obesity-risk classification systems recommend using the same waist circumference threshold values for all BMI categories Song, X. Health researchers have suggested new body mass index (BMI) thresholds for defining overweight and obese individuals in ethnic communities. Weight that is higher than what is considered as a healthy weight for a given height is described as overweight or obese. Using WC over BMI and other markers of adiposity emphasised the important role of central obesity medwireNews: Researchers report that waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference are associated with type 2 diabetes risk to a similar degree across multiple ethnicities, unlike BMI and body fat.. In general, the optimal BMI and WC thresholds approximated currently used thresholds in men and in white women. To determine ethnic specific cut points for adiposity, BMI and waist circumference were modelled using restricted cubic splines (RCS) with three knots. That's why waist circumference thresholds are so important for these populations. Thresholds for WC were identified where ORs for WC corresponded to those seen at BMIs of 18.5, 25, 30, 35, and 40 according to the sex- and race-ethnicity-specific OR equations. Among men, a waist circumference of 102 cm equated to 79, 88, and 88 cm for South Asian, black, and Chinese participants, respectively. WHO Expert Consultation. the IDF recommends the age- and sex-specific 90th per-centile as a cut-off value for waist circumference (WC) in adolescents 10-15 years of age and ethnic-specific WC cut-off value for those 16-18 years of age.13 In previous studies, the threshold percentiles for WC regarding the clustering of cardio-metabolic risk factors Both waist circumference and BMI have sex and ethnic specific cut-offs, which complicates their practical use. Because WC is typically not assessed in clinical practice, this study sought to develop and verify a model to predict WC . Waist circumference (WC) is a simple, predictive measure of abdominal adiposity.1 Over the last 20 years within the UK, WC has increased more steeply than body mass index (BMI) among children and adolescents.2 BMI cannot differentiate between lean tissue and body fat, or provide an indication of body fat distribution, whereas an excess accumulation of abdominal fat is associated . DOI: 10.1016/J.JPEDS.2004.06.044 Corpus ID: 8245281; Waist circumference percentiles in nationally representative samples of African-American, European-American, and Mexican-American children and adolescents. Robert Ross. The current waist circumference cut point used for the Epidemiol 2008; 61: 646-653. diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in sub-Saharan African women is not appro- 8 World Health Organization. Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine whether the cross-sectional associations between anthropometric obesity measures, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and calculated 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk using the Framingham and general CVD risk score models, are the same for women of Australian, UK and Ireland, North . Design and Methods . Introduction. It is therefore a more accurate predictor of obesity classification waist circumference and bmi risk, type 2 diabetes in women and metabolic syndrome. The WC cut-off of 35 in. To determine whether a patient is obese, estimates such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference are widely used - with accepted cut-offs being 30 kg/m 2 for BMI and 94 cm for men and 80 cm for women in terms of waist circumference. However, these values have not been validated against "hard" clinical outcomes and therefore provide "ballpark" figures to patients and their treating physicians. This status is combined with 1 of 3 other metabolic associated criteria defined in a consensus statement (overweight/obesity, type 2 diabetes, or normal weight defined by BMI) with at least 2 of the following metabolic abnormalities: waist circumference 102/88 cm in men and women (or 90/80 cm in Asian men and women), blood pressure 130 . The following table (Table 1) summarizes IDF waist circumference values according to ethnicity and gender. In general, the optimal BMI and WC thresholds approximated currently used thresholds in men and in white women. The waist circumference (WC) cutoff levels defined for the Caucasian people may not be representative for different ethnic groups. BackgroundThe appropriate optimal anthropometric indices and their thresholds within each BMI category for predicting those at a high risk of cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVDRFs) among the Chinese are still under dispute.ObjectivesWe aimed to identify the best indicators of CVDRFs and the optimal threshold within each BMI category among the Chinese.MethodsBetween 2012 and 2020, a total . If your BMI is 30.0 or higher, it falls within the obese range. Breathe out naturally before taking the measurement. Development of health-related waist circumference thresholds within BMI categories. Peter Katzmarzyk. Ian Janssen. The thresholds are: underweight for BMI 18.5 kg/m 2; normal if BMI 18.5 kg/m 2 and 25 kg/m 2; and overweight or obesity for BMI 25 kg/m 2. Body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were indica-tors of body fat used in the WHO criteria, [2] while waist circumference (WC) has been rec-ommended as a surrogate for abnormal fat distribution in more recent MS criteria [1]. Obesity 18 For both men and women, the Ardern waist circumference values substantially improved health effects of obesity essay spm of mortality compared with the traditional values. It is unclear whether the lower threshold for BMI in Asians is due to differences in body composition, biochemical characteristics, lifestyle, or genetics. ISSN: 1479-1064; Journal h-index: 22; Journal CiteScore: 7.78 ; Journal Impact Factor: 4.76 ; Average acceptance to publication time (5-7 days) between waist circumference and morbidity, and on any association between BMI, waist circumference and health risk. * In future epidemiological studies of populations of Europid origin, prevalence should be given using both European and North American cut points to allow better comparisons. We performed an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) on general . Obesity-related genetic variants have been identified, but these explain little of the variation in BMI. Fig 1: Age-adjusted body mass index and waist circumference cut-offs equivalent to conventional obesity thresholds by ethnic group and sex. How do I measure my waist circumference? Regardless of your height or BMI, you should try to lose weight if your waist is: 94cm (37ins) or more for men. For the purpose of this guidance black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups are defined as follows: The sensitivities at the optimal thresholds ranged from 63.5 to 68.5% for BMI and 68.4 to 71.0% for WC and the specificities ranged from 64.2 to 68.8% for BMI and from 68.5 to 71.0% for WC, respectively. Ashwell, M. Obesity 22 waits Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults: the evidence report.

This study determines the optimal cut-off point of waist circumference for metabolic syndrome among low-income earning South African black population, in Eastern Cape, South Africa. 4 However, although BMI is strongly . BMI alone. The demographic characteristics of 1898 adult males and 2308 nonpregnant females from 24 provinces of 7 . [25] H. C. Lukaski and P. E. Johnson, "A simple, inexpensive [10] H. Ochiai, T. Shirasawa, R. Nishimura et al., "Relationship of method of determining total body water using a tracer dose body mass index to percent body fat and waist circumference of D2 O and infrared absorption of biological fluids," American among schoolchildren in . Design This study used the pooled 2013-2014 and 2015-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES . It circumferwnce calculated as the ratio of weight in kilograms kg divided by height in metres-squared m2. PLoS ONE 2012; 7: e48883. We determined sex specific WC cutoff points to predict obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular risk in Turkish adults. Agreement with waist circumference was conducted. WWI was calculated as waist circumference (cm) divided by the square root of weight (kg).

Background: Metabolic syndrome is pandemic; however, the cut-off values for waist circumference (WC) vary widely depending on the ethnic groups studied and the criteria applied for WC measurement. The team looked at the relationships between the four body composition measures and type 2 diabetes risk in 21,072 participants of the Amsterdam-based Healthy Life in an Urban Setting (HELIUS . The metabolic syndrome abnormalities appear at higher body mass index and waist circumference among women. This study aimed at . Body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio, and waist circumference are commonly used measures for estimating abdominal adiposity (6,7). Obesity 14 Jump over to the doctors only platform. If your BMI is 18.5 to 24.9, it falls within the normal or Healthy Weight range. . Objective . CONCLUSIONS Obesity should be defined at lower thresholds in nonwhite populations to ensure that interventions are targeted equitably based on equivalent diabetes prevalence. Most individuals were categorized in the same status, whether using the BMI or the WHtR. BMI in American adults has increased over the past 18 years. The prevalence of obesity and its related chronic diseases have been increasing especially in Asian countries. The data shows that the impact of BMI and waist circumference on ISI is ethnic- and gender-specific, indicating a disturbed fat metabolism in Iraqi males in particular and suggests that 10 cm lower cut-off values for abdominal obesity, than is currently recommended by major organisations, should be considered when estimating diabetes risk in .

3.4.1 Ethnic groups for which waist circumference or waist-hip . A 'raised' waist circumference is defined as above 102 cm (40 inches) for men and above 88 cm (35 inches) for women. Development of Health-Related Waist Circumference Thresholds Within BMI Categories** Obesity, 2004. Using our newly estimated waist circumference thresholds, the age-adjusted prevalence of MetS was 30.9% in males and 30.3% in females. The BMI-specific WC thresholds were cross-validated using the CHHS. The sensitivities at the optimal thresholds ranged from 63.5 to 68.5% for BMI and 68.4 to 71.0% for WC and the specificities ranged from 64.2 to 68.8% for BMI and from 68.5 to 71.0% for WC, respectively. RCS was preferred over a linear model because of the AIC static was lower for all RCS models compared to the linear models, for determining adiposity cut points (26). Other science agrees . Find the bottom of your ribs and the top of your hips. However, BMI and alternative measures of fat mass have been shown to be highly correlated; furthermore the obesity paradox has also been demonstrated in HF populations using both waist circumference and percent body fat. Measuring adults. We used logistic regression analysis to examine the associations between WC classification and metabolic risk within the normal-weight, overweight, and class I obese BMI categories Table 3. (27,28) Finally, the outcomes analyses and related conclusions are limited by the shorter-term follow-up (60 days) pre . Prospective studies using representative populations are required to firmly establish ethnicity-specific and BMI category-specific waist circumference threshold values that distinguish adults at increased health risk. medwireNews: Researchers report that waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference are associated with type 2 diabetes risk to a similar degree across multiple ethnicities, unlike BMI and body fat.. The ensuing widening of the hip bones . Recent studies reported associations between DNA methylation and obesity, mostly in non-Asian populations. The International Diabetes Federation's definition of the metabolic syndrome uses ethnic-specific criteria to define abdominal obesity. The sample included 2,096 white women, 1,789 AA women . [16, 18] . increased sensitivity slightly to 78% with 40% specificity. If your BMI is 25.0 to 29.9, it falls within the overweight range. 4.Obesity. Of note, BMI-specific waist circumference thresholds have been developed in African American and white men and women 112. Assessing body mass index and waist circumference thresholds for intervening to prevent ill health and premature death among adults from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups in the UK 1 Introduction In July 2011, NICE received a referral from the Department of Health on assessing Age-adjusted ORs and 95% CIs for prevalent type 2 diabetes associated with a 0.5-SD increment in each anthropometric measure: BMI, waist circumference (Waist), and WHR (Waist:Hip). Results are shown separately by sex and ethnic group (Asian and white). Therefore, we decided to keep the BMI measure. Ardern CI, Janssen I, Ross R, Katzmarzyk PT. Quality in Primary Care Open Access. The aim was to develop recommendations for using waist . Obes Res 2004;12:1094 . 80cm (31.5ins) or more for women. Background To lower the risk of diabetes and heart disease in Africa, identification of African-centred thresholds for inexpensive biomarkers of insulin resistance (IR) is essential. Similar to previous research, the optimal waist circumference thresholds . Objectives This study examines the gender effect on the associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist circumference to height ratio (WHtR) with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) when Asian-specific cutoffs are applied among Asians living in the USA. Based on our findings, the . Body-mass index and cause-specific mortality in 900,000 adults: collaborative analyses of 57 . Waist Circumference and Waist-Hip Ratio: Report of a priate. Janssen I, Katzmarzyk PT, Ross R. Body mass index, waist circumference, and health risk: evidence in support of current National Institutes of Health guidelines. The team looked at the relationships between the four body composition measures and type 2 diabetes risk in 21,072 participants of the Amsterdam-based Healthy Life in an Urban Setting (HELIUS . Increases in weight over time were more harmful in Asians than in the other ethnic groups: For every 11 pounds Asians gained during adulthood, they had an 84 percent increase in their risk of type 2 diabetes; Hispanics, blacks, and whites who gained weight also had higher diabetes risks, but again, to a much lesser degree than Asians. however, the International Diabetes Federation has suggested . a recent study found that the waist-to-height ratio (using the threshold 0.5) identifies far more people at early health risk than BMI and WC used together. 93, 30 kg/m 2 and 30 % for men. Using the WHO Asian BMI threshold of 23 kg/m 2, sensitivity increased to 84% with a specificity of 32%. For example, one American Heart Association study found that BMI might not work well to indicate obesity or heart disease for Asians, and may not be the best stand-alone health readers for Blacks, Hispanics, or Specific Islanders, either 5. Arch Intern Med 2002;162:2074-79. value of 95 cm, rather than the 102 cm currently used is needed.

The sensitivities at the optimal thresholds ranged from 63.5 to 68.5% for BMI and 68.4 to 71.0% for WC and the specificities ranged from 64.2 to 68.8% for BMI and from 68.5 to 71.0% for WC, respectively. By Peter T. Katzmarzyk, George A. Bray, Frank L. Greenway, William D. Johnson, Robert L. Newton, Eric Ravussin, Donna H. Ryan, Claude Bouchard, NIH, World Health . The optimal waist circumference cut-off point was determined through receiver operating characteristics . . Ashwell, M., P. Gunn, and S. Gibson, Waist-to-height ratio . The current waist circumference cut point used for the Epidemiol 2008; 61: 646-653. diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in sub-Saharan African women is not appro- 8 World Health Organization. The waist circumference (WC) thresholds that predicts IR in African men and women have not been established, but investigations recently conducted in Africa using indirect measures of IR suggest IR is predicted by . The BMI is calculated using body mass central obesity waist circumference and bmi height, and the resulting score is an indirect measure of body fat. WHO Expert Consultation. Body mass index and waist circumference cutoffs to define obesity in indigenous New Zealanders 1 - 3 more. In general, the optimal BMI and WC thresholds approximated currently used thresholds in men and in white women. Design This study used the pooled 2013-2014 and 2015-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES . Background Recent guidelines stressed the need to adopt different values of waist circumference (WC) measurements to define abdominal obesity in different ethnic groups. Chris Ardern. Wrap a tape measure around your waist midway between these points. Effect of exercise training intensity on abdominal visceral fat and body composition. For children, we use BMI-for-age zscores. Central or abdominal obesity, measured as waist circumference (WC), is one of 5 risk factors constituting a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome.1 WC is found to explain obesity-related health risks, 2 and for a given body mass index (BMI), an increase of WC by 5 cm has been associated with an increased risk of death of 17% for men and 13% for women.3. Using WC over BMI and other markers of adiposity emphasised the important role of central obesity In the whole sample at baseline, 47.1% were underweight,. Body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were indica-tors of body fat used in the WHO criteria, [2] while waist circumference (WC) has been rec-ommended as a surrogate for abnormal fat distribution in more recent MS criteria [1]. Results For older adults (65-74 and 75+ years old), the BMI threshold for identifying overweight increased to 26.9 and 26.6, respectively, from the. This study determined BMI-, sex- and race-specific WC thresholds. . . The sensitivities at the optimal thresholds ranged from 63.5 to 68.5% for BMI and 68.4 to 71.0% for WC and the specificities ranged from 64.2 to 68.8% for BMI and from 68.5 to 71.0% for WC,. An adult non-pregnant woman whose waist circumference is equal to or greater than 35 inches (88 cm) *Threshold criteria for BMI and waist circumference are generally lower for Asian populations. Thank you for visiting nature. PLoS ONE 2012; 7: e48883. Ethnic-Specific BMI and Waist Circumference Thresholds By Peter T. Katzmarzyk, George A. Bray, Frank L. Greenway, William D. Johnson, Robert L. Newton, Eric Ravussin, Donna H. Ryan and Claude Bouchard . Objectives This study examines the gender effect on the associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist circumference to height ratio (WHtR) with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) when Asian-specific cutoffs are applied among Asians living in the USA. These cut points were derived primarily in European populations to correspond to risk thresholds for a wide range of chronic diseases and mortality. Waist circumference has been identified as one of the strongest predictive tool for metabolic syndrome. Waist measurement is a measurement which indicates the need for weight management and reflects coronary risk related to both overweight and a central fat distribution. The prediction of dysglycaemia using anthropometric variables followed a similar pattern to 2MS. 2.Body constitution. J Clin 31 Crowther NJ, Norris SA. Download Download PDF. Previous studies for defining optimal WC cut-off points included high-income and urban settings, and did not cover low-income, rural settings, especially for ethnic minorities. Waist Circumference and Waist-Hip Ratio: Report of a priate. Specifically, waist circumference was measured to the nearest 0.1 cm with a measuring tape placed horizontally around the narrowest part of the torso over undergarments or light clothing at the end of a normal exhalation. and metabolic comorbidity differs in the 2 major ethnic groups in New Zealand and to ascertain whether ethnicity-specific BMI and waist circumference cutoffs for obesity are justified for Mori (indigenous New Zealanders). from regression models were based on a comparison with the ORs for CVD risks in subjects at the 25th percentile of an ethnic-specific population and because the .